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NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence

The Tallinn-based NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence (NATO CCDCOE) is a NATO-accredited knowledge hub, think-tank and training facility. The international military organisation focuses on interdisciplinary applied research and development, as well as consultations, trainings and exercises in the field of cyber security. The Centre’s mission is to enhance capability, cooperation and information-sharing between NATO, Allies and partners in cyber defence.

NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence

The heart of the NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence is a diverse group of international experts in cyber security. They include legal scholars, policy and strategy experts as well as technology researchers with military, government and industry backgrounds.

The Centre is staffed and financed by member nations – to date Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States. Australia, Bulgaria, Denmark, Japan, Norway, Romania, Croatia and many others are also on the path of joining the Centre.

The Centre is not part of NATO command or force structure, nor is it funded from the NATO budget. Many of the Centre’s publications, as well as a number of interactive databases, are accessible on Centre´s website .

Tallinn Manual 2.0

The most comprehensive guide for policy advisors and legal experts on how existing International Law applies to cyber operations. Authored by nineteen international law experts, the “Tallinn Manual 2.0 on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Operations” published in 2017 is the updated and considerably expanded version of the 2013 “Tallinn Manual on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare”. It is an influential resource for legal advisers dealing with cyber issues. The Tallinn Manual 2.0 is the most comprehensive analysis on how existing international law applies to cyberspace. The Tallinn Manual is available in both paper and electronic copies from Cambridge University Press (© Cambridge University Press 2017).  The drafting of the Tallinn Manual 2.0 was facilitated and led by the NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence. The Tallinn Manual framework is an ongoing process with legal, technical, strategic and operational assessment of cyber scenarios. The next step in this process is editing and publishing of a practical reference source and toolkit for Nations´ Cyber Commands.

Exercise Locked Shields

Annual cyber exercise Locked Shields, organised by the NATO CCDCOE, is the largest and most complex international live-fire cyber defence exercise in the world. The annual real-time network defence exercise is a unique opportunity for national cyber defenders to practise protection of national IT systems and critical infrastructure under the intense pressure of a severe cyberattack. Since its start in 2010, Locked Shields is renowned for introducing new challenges, technologies and specialised systems. Locked Shields training experience focuses on realistic and cutting-edge technologies, scenarios, networks and attack methods. More than 1000 experts from nearly 30 nations participate in Locked Shields 2019. While the organisers of the exercise gather in Tallinn, Estonia and the exercise is run on the Estonian Defence Forces´ Cyber Range, the participating Blue Teams join by secure online access from their home base.

International Conference on Cyber Conflict (CyCon)

The 11th International Conference on Cyber Conflict (CyCon 2019) will be held on 28-31 May 2019 in Tallinn, Estonia. Every year, over 600 decision-makers and experts from government, military and industry from all over the world approach the conference’s key theme from legal, technology and strategy perspectives, often in an interdisciplinary manner. Known for high level talks, relevance of reflections and wide array of experts, CyCon brings together hundreds of senior decision-makers from politics, military, academia and business for a frank and open debate. CyCon 2019 will focus on the core aspects of cyber security, the topics will include cyberspace governance, changing role of states in cyberspace, nature of current and future cyberattacks, military doctrine development, cyberspace as a domain of warfare, artificial intelligence and cognitive cyber security as well as legal aspects of cyber operations. For updates, materials and more information, please visit the conference web site .

Last updated: 6. December 2023, 15:50

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